Sign In   
Sign In        
revised-comprehensive-norms-for-an-expanded halstead-reitan battery


Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition

Elizabeth Carrow-Woolfolk, PhD

Identifies oral and written language problems in individuals ages 3-21 years (Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression scales) and 5-21 years (Reading Comprehension and Written Expression scales)
Paper and pencil, Software
Age range:
3 years to 21 years
10-30 minutes per scale, 45-110 minutes total
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

Building on the strong theory and research underpinning the original OWLS, the second edition offers an integrated, global approach to language assessment.

Features and benefits

  • The new Reading Comprehension scale measures the receptive aspects of written language.
  • Item additions and revisions enhance the Written Expression scale’s validity and scope, as well as its ability to elicit a variety of responses and assess higher functioning individuals. Scoring guidelines are now more explicit.
  • Features colorful, updated artwork that’s balanced in terms of race, gender, and physical differences.
  • A helpful handbook, Foundations of Language Assessment, explains the theory on which the OWLS-II is based, making it easier to understand the test and interpret results.
  • All OWLS-II scales were normed on the same sample (N = 2123), which is representative of U.S. Census statistics. 

Test structure

  • The Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression scales assess receptive and expressive language in individuals ages 3-21 years. Basals and ceilings are used to ensure that examinees are given only items that closely approximate their ability levels.
  • Reading Comprehension and Written Expression measure written language abilities and are designed for individuals ages 5 to 21 years.
  • Each scale assesses four linguistic structures: lexical/semantics, syntax, pragmatics, and supralinguistics.
  • Although the four scales can be used separately, using them together produces a comprehensive score profile that pinpoints language delays, identifies strengths and weaknesses in all areas, and guides intervention.

Technical information

  • All four scales provide age- and grade-based standard scores, test-age equivalents, percentile ranks, and descriptive labels.
  • Scale scores can be combined to produce five Composites: Oral Language, Written Language, Receptive Processing, Expressive Processing, and Overall Language Processing.
  • The Profile Form gives you a clear, graphic representation of the examinee’s performance in each area. The form notes the linguistic structure measured by each item.
  • A time-saving scoring program provides raw score to scale score conversions, all composite scores, graphic score profiles, high-level item analysis, scale score comparisons, and helpful narrative interpretations.